Was Epicurus an Atheist?

Was Epicurus an Atheist?

Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God? Epicurus (according to Lactantius)...
Western Esotericism: History & Definition

Western Esotericism: History & Definition

The great events that lay behind what would academically be termed “Western Esotericism” took place during the 1400s, with the latter half as the most eventful. This period was the colorful era of the Renaissance, which in many ways was a time...
The Constancy of Change: Heraclitus

The Constancy of Change: Heraclitus

You have probably heard the statement, “Everything flows” or maybe “You can’t step into the same river twice”. Both are statements attributed to the great philosopher and mystic Heraclitus of Ephesus. If one ploughs through the surviving fragments that we have from...
The Four Elements: Earth, Fire, Wind and Water (Empedocles)

The Four Elements: Earth, Fire, Wind and Water (Empedocles)

What is the universe made of? What is the arche? Is it one singular primordial thing or is it many things? Is it water or is it fire? Earth or air? For most of the ancient pre-Socratic philosophers the fundamental reality was made out of one single substance, though...
The Arche: Reality According to the Pre-Socratic Natural Philosophers

The Arche: Reality According to the Pre-Socratic Natural Philosophers

The Arche. The origins. The primordial matter of the universe. What is reality and what is it made of? What is its essence? Could it be water? Or perhaps wind? Maybe earth? Mayhap fire? A combination of the above? Maybe its more likely that the Arche is something...

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