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History

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari (Quotes & Excerpts)

What is it to be human and how long have we been this way? What is history and does it have a trajectory towards something larger than we can imagine? Were we better off before compared to the technological age of today? Did hunter and gatherer societies live more...

Was Epicurus an Atheist?

Is God willing to prevent evil, but not able? Then he is not omnipotent. Is he able, but not willing? Then he is malevolent. Is he both able and willing? Then whence cometh evil? Is he neither able nor willing? Then why call him God? Epicurus (according to Lactantius)...

Western Esotericism: History & Definition

The great events that lay behind what would academically be termed "Western Esotericism" took place during the 1400s, with the latter half as the most eventful. This period was the colorful era of the Renaissance, which in many ways was a time characterized by a...

The Constancy of Change: Heraclitus

You have probably heard the statement, “Everything flows” or maybe “You can’t step into the same river twice”. Both are statements attributed to the great philosopher and mystic Heraclitus of Ephesus. If one ploughs through the surviving fragments that we have from...

The Four Elements: Earth, Fire, Wind and Water (Empedocles)

What is the universe made of? What is the arche? Is it one singular primordial thing or is it many things? Is it water or is it fire? Earth or air? For most of the ancient pre-Socratic philosophers the fundamental reality was made out of one single substance, though...

The Arche: Reality According to the Pre-Socratic Natural Philosophers

The Arche. The origins. The primordial matter of the universe. What is reality and what is it made of? What is its essence? Could it be water? Or perhaps wind? Maybe earth? Mayhap fire? A combination of the above? Maybe its more likely that the Arche is something...

1832 in History (Events & Quotes)

January 16 Charles Darwin arrives at San Tiago, Cape Verde. February 6 The first appearance of cholera at Edinburgh, Scotland. February 12 Ecuador annexes the Galapagos Islands. February 12 Cholera breaks out in London. At least 3000 people are killed. The outbreak...

Power and Symbolism During the Time of Augustus

Before Octavian became emperor Augustus, his first strategic effort was to cement his lineage and father-son relationship with the recently murdered dictator Julius Caesar. By strengthening his relationship with the influential Julian house, he acquired many benefits...

Morality and Virtue in The Prince by Machiavelli

What is good and is it always wise to choose virtue over vice? What if choosing to do good led to your demise, would you still do good or would you consider being cunning and maybe appear to be whatever is needed in that situation which leads to your well-being. In...

Existential Arguments Against the Scientific Paradigm

On Being and Truth: Existentialist arguments against the authority of rational thinking and the scientific paradigm The universe and our world are governed by natural laws, and these laws we as humans or more specifically the scientists among us, can discover and...
Power and Symbolism During the Time of Augustus

Power and Symbolism During the Time of Augustus

Before Octavian became emperor Augustus, his first strategic effort was to cement his lineage and father-son relationship with the recently murdered dictator Julius Caesar. By strengthening his relationship with the influential Julian house, he acquired many benefits...

Morality and Virtue in The Prince by Machiavelli

Morality and Virtue in The Prince by Machiavelli

What is good and is it always wise to choose virtue over vice? What if choosing to do good led to your demise, would you still do good or would you consider being cunning and maybe appear to be whatever is needed in that situation which leads to your well-being. In...

Existential Arguments Against the Scientific Paradigm

Existential Arguments Against the Scientific Paradigm

On Being and Truth: Existentialist arguments against the authority of rational thinking and the scientific paradigm The universe and our world are governed by natural laws, and these laws we as humans or more specifically the scientists among us, can discover and...

The Age of Enlightenment: One or Many?

The Age of Enlightenment: One or Many?

What was the age of enlightenment? Was it a unified and distinct movement that took place in 18th century Europe or is the story of the Enlightenment much more complicated and multifaceted than that? In this article I've decided to zero in on precisely this...

A Brief History of How Magic Developed in Modern Europe

A Brief History of How Magic Developed in Modern Europe

How did the concept or practice of magic really begin in the West? We know for example that the religion of the ancient Egyptians was in some regards indistinguishable from certain definitions we have of magic, especially ritual magic. But how did magic begin in...

The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt (2134 – 1690 BCE)

The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt (2134 – 1690 BCE)

Middle Kingdom marks the reunion and resurrection of the once united and powerful Egypt of the Old Kingdom. The 11th dynasty begins with Mentuhotep II reuniting the fragmented parts of Egypt into one single country. The 11th dynasty began building big once again and...

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